Solar Energy Chemistry

Solar Energy Chemistry

Are there other solar effects on the global climate?

I’m writing the Skeptical Science advanced rebuttal to “it’s the Sun”. So far I’ve covered the Sun’s impact on the Earth’s climate via solar irradiance (TSI) and galactic cosmic rays. Are there any other plausible and credible mechanisms by which the Sun could be impacting the global climate that the rebuttal should cover?

UV Irradiance is not well understood but can easily flucuate by 6-8% over a solar cycle.

“Though solar irradiance varies slightly over the 11 year cycle, radiation at longer UV wavelengths are known to increase by several (6-8% or more) percent with still larger changes (factor of two or more) at extremely short UV and X-ray wavelengths (Baldwin and Dunkerton, JAS 2004).
Energetic flares increase the UV radiation by 16%. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs this excess energy and this heat has been shown to propagate downward and affect the general circulation in the troposphere. Shindell (1999) used a climate model that included ozone chemistry to reproduce this warming during high flux (high UV) years. Labitzke and Van Loon (1988) and later Labitzke in numerous papers has shown that high flux (which correlates very well with UV) produces a warming in low and middle latitudes in winter in the stratosphere with subsequent dynamical and radiative coupling to the troposphere. The winter of 2001/02, when cycle 23 had a very strong high flux second maxima provided a perfect verification of Shindell and Labitzke and Van Loon’s work.”

Solar Power Chemistry


Solar Power Breakthrough

Solar Power Breakthrough

What can be done about Global Warming?

My point of view is that Global Warming does exist and is a problem. If anyone has a different opinion, okay that’s cool, but I don’t care to debate it right now.

Basically, what are some things we can do to curve the effects of Global Warming? What things will have a definate impact on the environment. I know recycling and turning off lights and driving hybrid cars will help, but is there anything else?

Should countries back the Kyoto Protocol for instance? Is there legislation that can be suggested? Any scientific breakthroughs that we should pour money into to save the enviornment? Hydro-cars? Any bright ideas?

Global Warming is real. Understanding what causes global warming is the key to understanding our options. Basically humans have been releasing a number of different gasses in to the atmosphere in very very large quantities for about 100 years now. Those gases have changed the way the earth absorbs and reflects light from the sun. Those changes have resulted in the Earth absorbing slightly more sunlight than it used to and that extra energy is slowly heating up the Earth.

Here is the problem. The gasses we have already released into the atmosphere would be very difficult to take back out again and so we are basically stuck waiting for natural processes to remove those gases. That will take hundreds of years.

What we can do though is to keep it from getting worse. Today we are releasing more of these gases faster than ever so every day the problem gets worse because more and more greenhouse gases are building up in the atmosphere. To keep the problem from getting worse we need to stop releasing these gasses as quickly as possible.

Reducing greenhouse gas production is very hard because our way of life is based on using lots of energy. It is the production of energy is the main way we create the most important greenhouse gas, which is carbon dioxide. Every time we burn something, gasoline to drive someplace, natural gas to heat our houses, coal to generate electricity, we make more carbon dioxide. We need to learn how to generate our energy using methods that do not require burning fossil fuels.

There are many types of energy that do not require burning fossil fuels such as: wind power, hydroelectric power, solar power and nuclear power. One important complication is that all of these “clean” power sources are used to generate electricity. That is a problem for cars because cars currently do not run on electricity. That is one reason why people are working hard on electric cars, hybrid cars and fuel cell power cars.

There is one more “clean” energy source that does work with today’s cars and that is bio fuel. In that case we grow plants, which absorb carbon dioxide to grow, and then later turn the plant matter into bio diesel or ethanol, both of which can be burned in a regular engine. The carbon dioxide that burning releases is the same carbon dioxide captured by the plants when they grow so there is no addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, which is why this is a clean fuel.

So basically there are a couple of things to understand about Global Warming.

1) We cannot make it go away no matter what we do because the gasses we have already released in the last 100 or so years will be in the atmosphere absorbing extra energy from the sun for hundreds of more years.

2) Global warming will get much worse if we keep pumping out greenhouse gases and it will last much longer. Greenhouse gases come from burning fossil fuels to generate our energy. Therefore we must change the way we generate energy as fast as possible.



Solar Energy Titles

Solar Energy Titles

Whats the relation between the spectral class and radius of a star?

Title says it all. According to wikipedia the stars are larger as we move up the O class. Why is that?

You’re correct. The title says it all.

Wiki sez “The mass, radius, and luminosity listed for each class are appropriate only for stars on the main sequence portion of their lives and so are not appropriate for red giants.”

Within the “main sequence” portion, mass adds to the gravitational compression, which, in turn adds to the fusion rate and extent to counteract the gravitational compression. So, with an “O” star, which is greater than, or equal to 16 solar masses and has a radius greater than, or equal to 6.6 solar radii, there is significantly greater fusion rate. As the radius increases, so does mass, and so does the gravitational compression driving the star to compensate for the compression by pushing the energy of fusion to higher limits.

Unfortunately for the star, this fusion compensation shortens the life expectancy of the star significantly.

Solar Power System Reality Show Series No 18


Solar Energy Vision

Solar Energy Vision

Everything in the universe is periodic/circular?

I read an article long back in which it was said that everything is circular or periodic and that the periodicity varies greatly from less than a second to millions of years. I read this article in an essay paragraph during an exam and lost the question paper. I know that the inspiration for the article came from a holy text( I think it’s the Vedas). Can somebody help me find more information on this??

When a person is born, he grows young, produces children, becomes old and dies. His child in turn grows young, produce children, becomes old and dies..and so on, the life cycle repeats. Similar is the case with all plants, animals and all living beings. Life gets repeated in circles.

Duration of Man’s life cycle is 80 to 100 years. Life cycle of animals is 10 to 50 years. Life cycle of insects and mosquitoes is 3 to 4 days. Life cycle of miniature worms and miniscule organisms is a few hours. Whatever may be the duration, life gets repeated in every form of life in fixed time cycles.

The daily sun rise and sun set, days and nights, weeks, months and years all get repeated in fixed time cycles.

Moon is circulating around itself and moving around earth. Earth and all the planets are circulating around themselves and moving around sun. All the solar systems, stars and galaxies are moving around the central universal force.

The cycle of creation seen in outside universe is existing within our body in the same cycle. Like the millions of solar systems forming the universe, millions of atoms are forming our body. Like the planets circulating around sun producing energy and forces that keep the universe stable, electrons present in every atom of the body circulate around neutron creating force of life and giving stability to the body. Sun giving light in outside universe is present as vision in the eyes of the body. Moon giving pleasant light and subjected to phases of full moon and new moon is present as heart and emotions in the body.

The universe is created with five basic elements, Earth (Bhumi) forming solid matter like rocks, mud and sand in planets, Water (Jal) forming water and all liquids, Heat (Tejas) forming energy and all forces such as gravitational force, electro magnetic force, etc., Air (Vayu) forming gasses like oxygen, hydrogen helium, etc. and Vacuum (Akash) forming the space for existence and operation of the physical matter. Similarly body is created with the same five basic elements Earth (Bhumi) forming skin, flesh, bones, etc., Water (Jal) forming blood, saliva, enzymes, semen, etc., Heat (Tejas) forming energy (shakti) and forces of life such as Jatharagni (digestiive force), Kamagni (force causing desire), Gynanagni (force causing intellect and wisdom) etc., Air (Vayu) forming the Panch Pran (five constituents of life) Pran, Apan, Vyan, Udan and Saman, and Vacuum (Akash) forming the mind operating in four layers, Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahankar. (There are no equivalent English words to some of these Vedic terms since modern science is yet to invent these subtle elements of life)

As the Universal Consciousness/God (Parabrahmam/Paramatma) is the soul of the universe creating, sustaining and providing life to the universe, individual consciousness or self (Jeevatma) is the soul creating, sustaining and providing life to the body. Every soul is a part of the Universal soul and merges ultimately with the Universal soul once the life cycle in various forms of life is completed.

This is the Andanda-Pindanda and Paramatma-Jeevatma concept of Virat Purusha described in Vedas and Upanishads.

Thus the entire universe is operating in circles and periodic cycles called Kala Chakra.

CNN: Just Imagine: Gerhard Knies